Equipment

Raman-Small

Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to understand the makeup of a material by analysing how light interacts with it. The Fluid Science & Resources group maintains a versatile Raman facility that is capable of rapidly generating high-resolution spectral images over the surface of materials and 3D views of transparent samples, at temperatures from –196 °C to +600 °C. Fibre-optic coupled probes allow in-situ process measurements up to +600 °C and 20 MPa. Excitation is provided by selecting between three laser sources: 532, 785, and 830 nm. The Raman facility is a key piece of infrastructure that is actively contributing to a broad range of projects, including studies of hydrate formation and inhibition, development of novel adsorbents, materials characterisation, and gas-solubility studies. The establishment of this facility was supported by the ARC through LE120100112.

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Interfacial Tension Apparatus

Interfacial tensiometry (IFT) is used to measure the interfacial tension between two phases; the IFT works by measuring the curvature of a droplet of one phase immersed in another phase. This curvature can be regressed back to an interfacial tension. These phases can be liquid-liquid or gas-liquid. At the Fluid Science & Resources group the IFT is used to study the effect surfactants have on the oil-water interfacial tension and how well different surfactants pack along the interface.

MMF

Micro-Mechanical Force Apparatus

When transporting natural gas or carbon dioxide in a pipeline solids called hydrates can form and aggregate, leading to blockages. The Fluid Science & Resources group is in possession of the latest generation micromechanical force apparatus (MMF), one of only three in the world. The MMF is used to study the cohesive & adhesive forces of microscopic solids. The MMF can also quantify the impact of pipeline injection chemicals on these cohesive & adhesive forces. The Fluid Science & Resources group uses the MMF to study the cohesive forces of clathrate hydrates and asphaltenes.

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Magritek 1T

This novel very compact benchtop NMR spectrometer provides chemical content analysis similar to high-field NMR spectrometers, and thus allows for the elucidation of molecular structure and quantification of chemical concentrations across a large range of samples. An important focus is the composition of discharge water from oil and gas operations. Importantly, this system is also uniquely fitted with a magnetic field gradient allowing unambiguous determination of oil and water diffusion and hence measurement of emulsion droplet size distributions. This is readily applied to opaque samples such as water-in-crude oil emulsions.

 FSR_11

Bruker Minispec

This benchtop NMR system allows for the measurement of diffusion of fluids and the determination of droplet size distributions of emulsions. With capabilities to operate over a range of temperature it is ideal for the monitoring of chilled and frozen samples, including the investigation of hydrate formation from water in crude oil samples.

NMR Core Analysers

NMR core analysis has become commonplace with installation in almost every major oil producer and SCAL laboratory world-wide. Low field NMR is routinely used in core analysis laboratories to examine the T2 relaxation time distribution of fluids in core plugs. This information can be interpreted to give information on: pore size distributions; permeability; total and effective porosity; free fluid index and bound water volumes. Measurements of cores in the laboratory on this instrument can be used to calibrate down-hole NMR well logs (e.g. T2 cutoff values). At the FSRD there are two NMR core analysers (below). Both feature core holders able to make measurements at reservoir conditions. Measurements are performed for both oil and gas reservoirs as well as for various mining applications.

 FSR_07

Oxford GeoSpec

Operating frequency: 12MHz
Bore size: 53mm
Measurement capability: MRI, diffusion and velocity, NMR relaxometry (e.g. T1, T2, T2-T2, T1-T2, D-T2).

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Magritek Rock Core Analyser

Operating frequency: 2MHz
Bore size: 55mm
Measurement capability: NMR relaxometry (e.g. T1, T2, T2-T2, T1-T2).

 CoreFloodApparatus

Core Flooding Apparatus

This specialized core flooding apparatus is designed for dispersion measurements of supercritical CO2 in CH4 used as input parameters for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) field scale simulations. The rock core is mounted in a Temco tri-axial core holder (RCHT-1.5 designed for cores of length up to 102 mm and pressures up to 69 Mpa) and is kept at a constant temperature by a silicone oil bath. The methane is injected by a syringe pump (ISCO 260D) while the pulse injection of CO2 is controlled by a high pressure metering pump (Quizix QX-6000) and a HPLC switching valve. The core effluent is analysed by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (Varian 640-IR) and the gases are collected by a second syringe pump at the end of the circuit, which works to maintain the average pressure constant during the experiment. The value of temperature and pressures (measured with a differential pressure transducer at the inlet and at the outlet of the core) are constantly monitored through Labview software.

 DSC

Micro-DSC

Differential Scanning Calorimetry is a versatile technique used to measure a number of thermo-physical properties, derived from the direct measurement of heat flow between a sample cell and reference cell inside a calorimetry block. The reference cell contains a material of well known heat capacity over the experimental temperature range. The DSC is designed such that the temperature of the calorimetry block increases linearly with time over a specified range. During this temperature ramp, the DSC will directly measure the difference in heat flow between the sample and reference cells. If no phase transitions or reactions occur during this temperature increase, the difference in heat flow is due to the difference in heat capacities of the two materials. However, if the heat capacity of the sample is known, then phase transitions and reactions can be recorded. The Fluid Sciences group at UWA has been using the DSC to investigate solid-liquid phase transitions, gas hydrate growth and high-pressure fluid heat capacities.

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HRFD Cell

The High-Resolution Fiber Dissociation cell is constructed from grade 316 stainless steel with dimensions of length 1.0 m and diameter 48.3 mm and is used to study hydrate plug formation and dissociation. The HRFD cell is capable of operating at pressures of up to 689 bar (10000 psi). State-of-the-art optical fiber technology is implemented for monitoring local temperatures within the hydrate plug with high spatial resolution. The aim of these studies is to improve the development of dynamic hydrate dissociation models.

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SPDCell

The Standard Pressure Dissociation (SPD) cell is capable of forming synthetic hydrate cores that are used to study hydrates in both the flow assurance and gas production space; providing insight into plug properties such as permeability and porosity while also allowing the study of hydrate gas exchange mechanisms. The SPD cell setup consists of a stainless steel 316 pipe with an active length of 0.57 m and internal diameter of 34 mm immersed in a monoethylene glycol bath that maintains a uniform cell temperature to within 0.1 °C, as monitored by five evenly spaced axial thermowells. Pressures of up to 350 bar can be maintained within the cell, controlled at each end by an ISCO pump, with any differential monitored using a Rosemount 3051SCD differential pressure transducer.

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Eralytics ERACHECK

This stand-alone compact analyser uses cutting edge quantum cascade laser – infrared (QCL-IR) technology and fully complies with Oil-in-Water standard ASTM D7678-11. It allows for the measurement of ppm concentrations of oil, grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons in process water, and can be used for process control in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and measurement of contamination of surface soils.

 FSR_06

TA Instruments Discovery

This Hybrid Rheometer can be used to determine the rheological properties of materials by analysing their stress / strain relationship. The rotational rheometer in Fluid Science & Resources group is an advanced combined motor and transducer (CMT) rheometer with Peltier jacket for temperature control. It can provide information about materials’ viscosity as a function of shear rate or stress, analyzing both time and temperature dependence; viscoelastic properties with respect to time, temperature and frequency; and stress/strain transient responses, such as relaxation modulus, creep compliance and creep recovery. With the pressure cell attached, the rheometer can be used to a pressure up to 138 bar (2000psi) at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to 150 °C; which makes almost all research related to rheology feasible, including analysis of the flow characteristics of crude oil and the rheology of hydrate slurries.

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Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension Balance

Densimeter with automatic dosing system

  FSR_02

Micromeritics ASAP 2020

Accelerated Surface Area and Porosimetry System

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Glovebox

 

 

Fluid Science & Resources Calendar